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Oklahoma permits the distribution of a small estate without probate, if the estate is worth $50,000 or less in total. There are two ways to avoid probate using affidavits in Oklahoma – one for financial accounts, one for personal property.
The first type of “Small Estate Affidavit” allowed in Oklahoma is one for financial accounts worth a total of $50,000 or less. This affidavit is authorized by 6 OS § 906. Banks, credit unions and savings and loan associations are permitted under Oklahoma statutory law to pay out bank accounts under Fifty-Thousand Dollars ($50,000) upon affidavit. The account must be in the name of a sole individual (not two persons) and also have no beneficiary designated. An original certified death certificate must be presented along with an affidavit, and the affidavit must establish the time and place of death and residence of the decedent. Also, the affidavit must state that the decedent did not leave a will. If the decedent left a will, probate will be necessary. The affidavit must set out the names of the heirs of the decedent. The affidavit must be signed and sworn to by at least one of the known heirs of the decedent.
Oklahoma also allows an affidavit to take the place of probate for the distribution of tangible personal property (property other than money or land) or an instrument evidencing a debt, obligation, stock, chose in action, or stock brand belonging to the decedent upon the presentment of an affidavit. This form of affidavit is authorized by 58 OS § 393. The limit is also $50,000, so any debt or personal property worth more than that must go through probate. Any person indebted to the decedent is authorized to accept the affidavit and make the distribution, so this affidavit can also be used for creditors as well as heirs at law. Anyone who is a successor to the decedent may sign the affidavit. The affidavit must state (1) the fair market value of property located in this state owned by the decedent and subject to disposition by will or intestate succession at the time of the decedent’s death, less liens and encumbrances, does not exceed Twenty Thousand Dollars; (2) No application or petition for appointment of a personal representative is pending or has been granted in any jurisdiction; (3) Each claiming successor is entitled to payment or delivery of the property in the respective proportions set forth in the affidavit; and All taxes and debts of the decedent’s estate have been paid or otherwise provided for or are barred by the statute of limitations. Like the first affidavit mentioned, you must also present an original certified death certificate along with the affidavit. This affidavit would be useful for the transfer of household contents, a vehicle, a stock brokerage account or the transfer of private or public corporate stock which does not exceed $50,000.
The attorney at the Skillern Law Firm, PLLC can help you get these small assets out of probate by drafting a valid Small Estate Affidavit that can keep you out of probate. Call our office today!
Most, if not all, timeshare owners will have to decide, at some point in their life, who they want to receive their timeshares after they pass away. Most timeshares are real property interests, that are deeded into the owner(s)’s name(s). If a timeshare is held in an individual’s name at death, just like any other piece of real property, it will have to go though probate. Most people, and some estate planning attorneys, do not realize that timeshares are a real property, and forget to put it into their Revocable Trust. The majority of real estate owners want their children to avoid the cost and delays of Probate proceedings after they die, and to avoid this, a Revocable Trust is one of the easiest and cost-effective ways.
Having a Will does not avoid probate, and especially does not avoid probate when it comes to real estate interests like timeshares. Many people think putting two names on a deed avoids probate. That is not entirely true. It is better to say it delays probate. If two owners, such as husband and wife, own the timeshare as “Joint Tenants” or as “Tenants by the Entirety,” probate is avoided when one owner dies because the co-owner has automatic “rights of survivorship” and becomes the sole owner. This can defer probate, but not avoid it; when the surviving co-owner or sole owner dies, probate will follow.
Some timeshare owners try to avoid probate for the timeshare or other real estate property by conveying the property into one of their children’s names while the owner is still alive. This can cause major headaches down the road though. First of all, there are gift-taxes associated with doing this. Also, if the child goes bankrupt, gets a divorce, or is sued, the timeshare or other real estate interest is included in their estate for these proceedings.
Not only does the timeshare or other real estate interest get included in those proceedings, but the original owner has lost full control of the timeshare. If the owner and their children disagree, they cannot act alone as they once were able to. The timeshare owner will need their child(ren)’s approval for all actions in relation to that timeshare. They could no longer sell, convey, change, or do anything without the child’s signature.
Our attorney encourages her client’s to use a Revocable Living Trust for estate planning purposes, probate avoidance and/or tax benefits. The problems of adding adult children on title to the timeshare are avoided with a trust. To read more about the benefits of a Trust, please read our previous post Living, Revocable, and Irrevocable. Let’s talk trusts.
If you have already created a trust, you need to make sure that you transfer your timeshare and other real property into the trust by way of properly prepared and recorded conveyance documents. Please feel free to call our office today and set an appointment to make sure your trust is funded correctly. If you do not have a trust but are interested in finding out if you need one, call our office today for a free consultation!
One of the most prominent cases of Living Wills or Advance Directives was the Terri Schaivo case in the early 2000s. It is prominent for Living Wills, in that Terri Schaivo did not have one, and her situation caused a legal battle that lasted years and costed thousands of dollars for her family.
In this case, there was a emotional and nationally-known legal battle in Florida over whether a woman, Terri Schaivo, would be kept alive through treatment of artificial food and water, or would pass away from the disuse of the treatment. If you remember, her husband, who was still legally married to her but estranged from her family, wanted her to pass away, but her family wanted her to remain alive through the artificial means. Since Terri Schaivo did not have a Living Will that told her family and husband what her wishes were, her family and spouse went through ten years of litigation, one-hundred thousand ($100,000) of dollars in legal fees, and endless pain and frustration for everyone involved. A Florida court ultimately decided Ms. Schaivo should be allowed to pass away.
Terri Schaivo and her family could have avoided the entire situation if she had a Living Will or Advance Directive in place. Our attorney highly recommends this document since it takes the heart-breaking and agonizing decision away from your family members, and allows you to get your end-of-life wishes. In Oklahoma, there are three situations that the state allows you to make your end-of-life wishes known. See our previous post about those specific situations here. This document is inexpensive, easy to execute, and could save you and your family money, emotional stress, and it grants you all peace of mind.
If you already have a Living Will in place, see if you need to update it by reading a previous post here.
Call the office of The Skillern Law Firm, PLLC today to schedule a meeting to discuss this document as well as other your other estate planning needs today!
In September of 2010, a non-lawyer wrote an article about her experience trying out four different will-making computer programs. This article appeared in the New York Times. After she got all four different wills drafted, she took the wills to an established estate planning lawyer in New York City, and had them reviewed. The results were poor, to say the least. The lawyer found that one of the Wills was so defective that it did not even identify which heirs got which of the author’s assets. Each of the other three wills had different problems, including problems that could harm the probate process. The attorney stated, “The thing that most surprised me is how different your will comes out depending on what program you pick.” Some of the more common problems with the online-made wills include:
If one or more of the beneficiaries you name in your Will passes away before you, and you haven’t named an alternate beneficiary to take that person’s place, then your property passes to your heirs-at-law. If you’re not a lawyer, chances are you don’t know who your heirs-at-law are, and you probably do not want your property going to them. A Will that does not name contingent beneficiaries may have the result of taking your property away from your control, and giving that control to the state through the state’s intestacy statutes. Most online websites forget or do not have a contingent beneficiary estate plan as part of their package, and this can cause all sorts of problems for people with relatively simple life situations. If your family’s situation is more complex than normal, say you are a blended family or you have complex estate, than contingent beneficiaries and similar provisions can make your estate planning problems even worse. Qualified estate planning attorneys know these problems and can work with you to figure out what is the best plan for your estate planning needs. An experienced attorney can adapt, and should will know what the appropriate questions to ask for your situation, and no computer estate planning model can do that.
Many clients of the attorneys at Skillern Law Firm, PLLC believe they do not need a new Advance Directive since they had one drafted many years ago. Well, if you got your living will completed before 2006, you may need yours updated.
During the 2006 Legislative Session, the Oklahoma Legislature amended the Oklahoma Advance Directive Act (“the Act”) in response to an Attorney General Opinion. It became effective on May 17, 2006.The Attorney General’s opinion argued that, in its then old form, the Oklahoma Advance Directive Act was unconstitutional. Before May of 2006, individuals could only designate refusal of life-sustaining treatment only if they were persistently unconscious (in a vegetative state) or if they were diagnosed with a terminal condition. The old act had no provision to allow people to choose if they want treatment or not if they were diagnosed with an “End-stage Condition.”
The Oklahoma Legislature listened to the Attorney General, and added this category to the statute. Now, individuals can discuss what they would want in an “End-Stage Condition.” An “End-stage Condition” is a condition caused by injury, disease, or illness, which results in severe and permanent deterioration indicated by incompetency and complete physical dependency for which, to a reasonable degree of medical certainty, treatment of the irreversible condition would be medically ineffective. Importantly, this includes Alzheimer’s disease in its late stages.
At the Skillern Law Firm, our updated Advance Directives forms allow you and your spouse to refuse life-sustaining treatment and/or artificial administration of nutrition and hydration, if you so choose. It will allow allow you to designate that you absolutely want all the treatment you can receive. Whether you choose to refuse life-sustaining treatment or to continue all treatment options, executing a new advance directive should be on your priority list.
If you have not updated your Advance Directive, or have never had one drafted with your desires, contact the offices of Skillern Law Firm, PLLC today. For more reading on what an Advance Directive can do you for, please read a past post all about living wills here.
Oklahoma allows the probate courts to admit holographic (or handwritten) wills. There are certain considerations that are very important to consider if you think a holographic will is right for you. Today on Tulsa Estate Planning Blog, Skillern Law Firm, PLLC will help you figure out if its right for you.
First, there are important, strict formalities that Oklahoma requires for a holographic will to be valid. First, the will must be dated. Second, it must be signed by the testator. Third, it must be completely in the handwriting of the testator/testatrix. And lastly, it must be clear that the document is the intended last will and testament of the testator/testatrix.
These four requirements are very strict. Without all four, and with a variation on all four, Oklahoma courts have refused to admit certain holographic wills.
One such error is the belief that getting a holographic will notorized or witnessed is a great thing. This is not true. If you remember from above, the document must be entirely written by the testator/testatrix. A notory or a witness’s tesatament are not the same handwriting. There have been some Oklahoma courts that have held that in the event it is notarized or witnesses, that does not defeat the will since it is not required to be witnessed or notarized. If you do choose a holographic will, do not chance this, and avoid a notary or witness.
Many people insist they should save the money and create a holographic will. I remember in law school, someone asked the teacher in our estate planning course whether there were really any benefits to a formal, attorney-made will. Of course there is, she said, otherwise there would be no estate planning attorneys!
There are some very common problems with holographic wills. Here are some common mistakes:
- Proving the authenticity of the will. Getting a handwriting expert, proving it was the intent, and making sure the entire document was written by the testator/testatrix is expensive, time-consuming, and doesn’t always result in probating of the holographic will. A formal, notarized, witnessed will is much easier to prove the authenticity, and many times, that is not even an issue with formal wills.
- Testator/testatrix omits important features of a formally prepared will that can have a severe impact of your estate. For instance, not having a residuary clause, spend-thrift clause, or many other important clauses that attorneys know are necessary.
- Vague/Confusing/Unmanageable instructions. Attorneys are good at using legal language that the probate court will be familiar with, and understand what the testator/testatrix desired. Many individuals are not. Furthermore, most holographic wills are vague and confusing, with different instructions concerning the same property, and avoiding discussing other property. For instance, leaving everything to “mother” does not exactly tell the court who you meant. Using vague terms, without using full names, and also using vague descriptions of property is a common mistake.
- Failure to distribute the entire estate. A problem arises when the holographic will distributes less than all of the testator’s estate. If, for instance, the will gives away his house, car, and bank accounts, but neglects to mention furniture and other personal property, there is a partial intestacy as to the assets not covered by the will. These assets will then pass to surviving legal heirs as determined by the state intestacy statutes, the result of which may not be what the testator intended.
- Many, many, more!
Just remember, all of these problems above (and the ones not listed) involve the probate trying to figure out what the testator/testatrix intended with their holographic will. This will eventually include probate attorneys charging hourly rates on your estate and beneficiaries. The cost of holographic wills may be free when they are made, but when they are probated, the cost is often much higher to the estate than a traditional, attorney-made will due to the probate costs.
Formal, Attorney-made wills is the best idea to make sure your estate is distributed as you desire, without the added probate costs of holographic wills. Let Skillern Law Firm, PLLC help you distribute your assets effectively, clearly, and easily through a will today. Please contact us to set up a free appointment today.
Avoiding probate is one of the most common concerns clients have when they come to Skillern Law Firm, PLLC. One of the easiest ways any individual or family can avoid probate on their bank accounts is putting a Payable on Death (POD) designation on the account. A POD designation allows the account to pass from the deceased account owner to the POD beneficiary without having to go through probate in Oklahoma.
Let’s back up. Payable on death, or “POD” as it is known in the estate planning world, is used by most attorneys in this area of law. Bank accounts generally allow the owner to designate a POD beneficiary on the account. It’s usually a pretty easy process of filling out the bank’s form, sending it in with the POD designation on the form clearly noted, and voila!
A POD beneficiary can be a individual, trust or a nonprofit organization. What a POD designation does is it makes the bank contractually obligated to pay the account proceeds to the POD beneficiary after the account owner has passed. However, before the bank turns the money over, the bank is required to pay any party holding a security interest and must generally receive approval from the Oklahoma Tax Commission. If the POD beneficiary is living, the bank will pay the proceeds directly that designated beneficiary. If, however, the POD beneficiary is not living, and there is no secondary or contingent beneficiary named, then the bank will have to pay the monies in the account to the estate of the deceased beneficiary, as opposed to the estate of the account owner. The bank owner may establish a primary beneficiary and other contingent beneficiaries. However, if more than one primary beneficiary is named, then no contingent beneficiaries can be named. If more than one primary POD beneficiary is named, then the beneficiaries will split the assets in the account equally.
Other than bank accounts, Oklahoma has slightly different rules for loans, savings accounts and credit union accounts, so make sure what type of institution and/or account you own before utilizing a POD, and call the institutions to make sure you are following their rules and forms. If you are interested in learning more about a how to set up a POD designation, probate avoidance or properly funding your trust, please set up an appointment with Skillern Law at your convenience.